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Summoning his last reserves of strength, through a stupendous act of willpower, Grant toiled four to six hours a day, adding more time on sleepless nights. For family and friends his obsessive labor was wondrous to behold: the soldier so famously reticent that someone quipped he "could be silent in several languages" pumped out 336,000 words of superb prose in a year. By May 1885, just two months before his death, Grant was forced to dictate, and, when his voice failed, he scribbled messages on thin strips of paper. Always cool in a crisis, Grant exhibited the prodigious stamina and granite resolve of his wartime effort.

Nobody was more thunderstruck than Samuel Clemens, aka Mark Twain, who had recently formed a publishing house with his nephew-in-law Charles Webster. To snare Grant's memoirs, sure to be a literary sensation, Twain boosted the royalty promised by the Century's publishers and won the rights. Twain had never seen a writer with Grant's gritty determination. When this man "under sentence of death with that cancer" produced an astonishing ten thousand words in one day, Twain exclaimed, "It kills me these days to write half of that." He was agog when Grant dictated at one sitting a nine- thousand-word portrait of Lee's surrender at Appomattox "never pausing, never hesitating for a word, never repeating—and in the written-out copy he made hardly a correction." Twain, who considered the final product a masterwork, scoffed at scuttlebutt he had ghostwritten it. "There is no higher literature than these modern, simple Memoirs," he insisted. "Their style is man can improve upon it."

For Twain, the revelation of Grant's character was as startling as his storytelling. Eager to spare his family, Grant was every inch the stoic gentleman. Only at night, when he was asleep, did his face grimace with pain. "The sick-room brought out the points of General Grant's character," Twain wrote. "His exceeding gentleness, kindness, forbearance, lovingness, charity.... He was the most lovable great child in the world." For one observer, it was wrenching to watch Grant "with a bandage about his aching head, and a horrible and mortal disease clutching his throat." He felt "a great ache when I look at him who had saved us all when we were bankrupt in treasure and in leaders, and see him thus beset by woes and wants." In a magnificent finale, Grant finished the manuscript on July 16, 1885, one week before his death in upstate New York. He had steeled himself to stay alive until the last sentence was done and he could surrender his pen.

The triumph of the Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant, which sold a record- breaking three hundred thousand copies in two-volume sets, was vintage Grant. Repeatedly he had bounced back from adversity, his career marked by surprising comebacks and stunning reversals. He had endured many scenes, constantly growing and changing in the process. Like Twain, Walt Whitman was mesmerized by Grant and grouped him with George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, and Ralph Waldo Emerson in the quartet of greatest Americans. "In all Homer and Shakespeare there is no fortune or personality really more picturesque or rapidly changing, more full of heroism, pathos, contrast," he wrote. The plain unadorned Grant had nothing stylish about him, leading sophisticated people to underrate his talents. He was a nondescript face in the crowd, the common man from the heartland raised to a higher power, who proved a simple westerner could lead a mighty army to victory and occupy the presidential chair with distinction.

Dismissed as a philistine, a boor, a drunk, and an incompetent, Grant has been subjected to pernicious stereotypes that grossly impede our understanding of the man. As a contemporary newspaper sniffed, Grant was "an ignorant soldier, coarse in his taste and blunt in his perceptions, fond of money and material enjoyment and of low company." In fact, Grant was a sensitive, complex, and misunderstood man with a shrewd mind, a wry wit, a rich fund of anecdotes, wide knowledge, and penetrating insights. Many acquaintances remembered the "silent" Grant as the most engaging raconteur they ever met. His weather-beaten appearance during the war, when he wore simple military dress, often caked with mud, could be misleading, for an inner fineness and delicacy lay beneath the rough-hewn exterior. At the same time, Grant could be surprisingly naive and artless in business and politics.

The caricature of Grant as a filthy "butcher" is ironic for a man who couldn't stomach the sight of blood, studiously refrained from romanticizing warfare, and shied away from a military career. "I never went into a battle willingly or with enthusiasm," he remarked. "I was always glad when a battle was over." Invariably he deprecated war. "It is at all times a sad and cruel business. I hate war with all my heart, and nothing but imperative duty could induce me to engage in its work or witness its horrors." Grant never grew vainglorious from military fame, never gloated over enemy defeats, never engaged in victory celebrations. He has been derided as a plodding, dim-witted commander who enjoyed superior manpower and matériel and whose crude idea of strategy was to launch large, brutal assaults upon the enemy. In fact, close students of the war have shown that the percentage of casualties in Grant's armies was often lower than those of many Confederate generals. If Grant never shrank from sending masses of soldiers into bloody battles, it had nothing to do with a heartless disregard for human life and everything to do with bringing the war to a speedy conclusion.

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